# MRI RFP

"2) Development of New Instrumentation, Analytical Techniques or Software that will extend current research and research training capabilities in the Earth sciences. The maximum request is 1,000,000;" Highlights. "MRI is not used to buy a suite of insturments to outfit research laboratories/facilities or be used to conduct independent research activities simultaneously". "MRI is used for a single insturment or when combined serves as an integrated instrument." The photon flux monitor when combined with the rabbit will be an instrument for both isotope production and PAA analysis research. The tool will have inter-disciplinary uses ranging from engineering to archeology. Track1 Acquisition of a single instrument Track2 development of a single instrument or for equipment that when combined serves as an integrated instrument. We will be track 2. The combined equipment will be an integrated instrument for the production of Isotopes to be used in research and industry. The devise will also be an instrument for PAA analysis. # Proposal The proposal will ask for a robot to move the sample from the trolley system into a pig because the holder may be activated as well as the sample. A row of CVD detectors will be used to scan the photon field at low electron currents which will reduce the maximum photon flux to 10^9. An array of CVD detector will be place downstream of the sample to monitor the flux as the electron current is increased to maximize the photon flux on the target. The position of the target can also be monitored with respect to the photon flux field as the field decreases to to the target absorbing photons. ## Purpose In June of 2012, the Idaho Accelerator Center received a grant from the state of Idaho as part of the Idaho Global Entrepreneurial Mission (IGEM) program. One of the proposed objectives was to research the use of an electron accelerator to produce Copper isotopes for medical diagnostic procedures. Preliminary results of the work sponsored by this research have indicated that the production of Copper isotopes strongly depends on the alignment of the incident radiation to the sample. While a two cm sample size may produce the highest number of isotopes per volume, a missalignment of more than a centimeter may reduce the amount of isotopes produced by a factor of at least two. A strong need now exists for a system to monitor the spatial distribution of the photons used to irradiate the samples. Based on these results, we propose the development of an irradiation instrument, that qualifies for the MRI category "Track 2", to be used for isotope production and PAA analysis. The proposed instrument will be composed of a photon beam monitoring system and a sample conveyor. Support from this MRI will be used to construct the photon monitoring system. Matching support from the IGEM project will be used for the sample conveyor system. The conveyor, commonly referred to as a rabbit, will transport samples into the irradiation region and then to a shielded container (lead pig) after irradiation. The transportation system is a necessity due to the high activity isotopes that may be produced. When used as an instrument for PAA, the transportation system will eliminate the step of shutting the accelerator off in order to change to the control sample thereby risking a change in the experimental conditions whose uniformity is essential for meaningful measurements. Once calibrated, the photon monitoring system would allow users to irradiate sample with a known amount of radiation. The proposed instruments ability to enhance the production of copper isotopes for medical diagnostic tests is only one potential use. Isotope production in the US is a busines..

Paragraph of the instruments impact on the production of isotopes.

Using the instrument for PAA and the large potential user base.

The University of Missouri's Research Reactor is a current producer of medical isotopes with a total operating budget o

## Talking points

1.) The accelerator "Jack" is an instrument for PAA and isotope production

2.) Isotope production impact on other areas of research (medical, fracking, underground pipelines, spikants for homeland security)

3.) Inter organizational use of PAA ( Geology, Archeology, certification for coffee origins....)

4.) Impact of Photon Flux monitoring for PAA analysis

5.) Device will train accelerator physicists, nuclear chemists, ...

What is the difference between time-like and spacelike Feynman diagram

## Minnesota Lunar Simulant

PAA was used to determine the trace elements present in the Minnessota Lunar Simulant 1 (MLS-1) material synthesized to approximate soil sample 10084 from the Apollo 11 mare material. Synthesized materials, like MLS-1, were produced to aide in the development of next generation lunar technologies for future lunar missions. Workshops were held to identify and define lunar regolith simulant materials for this purpose. Figure XXX quantifies PAA's ability to measure the trace elements of this material and contrasts those measurements with

In 2005, the Marshal Space Flight Center and the Johnson Space Center held a workshop to identify and define lunar regolith simulant materials that would be needed for the development of next generation lunar technologies to support future missions. This workshop was a follow up to a 1989 workshop that led to the development the lunar simulants MLS-1 and JSC-1. The PAA survey of this material was compared with Three moon dust simulant samples were irradiate for a PPA analysis and compared to a reference study.

[\ref L. Sibille, "Lunar Regolith Simulant Materials, Recommendations for Standardization, Production, and Usage", NASA TP, 2005]

Table 4.3B (pg 4-13) in the reference below has the trace element data for MLS-1 as attribute to Tucker and Setzer (1991) http://isru.msfc.nasa.gov/lib/Documents/PDF%20Files/Final_LSRM_Report_12-9-05.pdf

D. Tucker and A. Setzer, "Differential Thermal Analysis of Lunar Soil Simulant", NASA Technical Memorandum TM-103563, 1991

## Evironmental Dust

Instrumental analytical methods are preferable in studying sub -milligram quantities of airborne particulates collected in dust filters. The multi-step analytical procedure used in treating samples through chemical separation can be quite complicated. Further, due to the minute masses of the airborne particulates collected on filters, such chemical treatment can easily lead to significant levels of contamination. Radio-analytical techniques, and in particular, activation analysis methods offer a far cleaner alternative. Activation methods require minimal sample preparation and provide sufficient sensitivity for detecting the vast majority of the elements throughout the periodic table. In this paper, we will give a general overview of the technique of photon activation analysis. We will show that by activating dust particles with 10- to 30-MeV bremsstrahlung photons, we can ascertain their elemental composition. The samples are embedded in dust-collection filters and are irradiated “as is” by these photons. The radioactivity of the photonuclear reaction products is measured with appropriate spectrometers and the respective analytes are quantified using multi -component calibration materials. We shall provide specific examples of identifying the elemental components of airborne dust particles and volcanic ash by making use of bremsstrah lung photons from an electron linear accelerator at the Idaho Accelerator Center in Pocatello, Idaho.

# Equipment

## Detectors

CVD diamond

Erich Griesmayer

Prof. Dr. Erich Griesmayer CIVIDEC Instrumentation GmbH Schottengasse 3A/1/41 A - 1010 Wien Mobile: +43 664 1066840 Fax: +43 1 9223619 www.cividec.at

## BPMs

Bergoz Instrumentation:

S-BPM = $4080 Euros S-BPM-FEFA =$1260 Euros

the other accessories are also desired

## Permanent magnet

### Off the shelf

A M-25 5 kGauss permanent magnet with a footprint of 4" x 3" could be placed between the radiator and the isotope target on Jack.

The gap is 0.75" so it to would need to go in the vacuum. We would need to determine how much the beam spot blows up after leaving the converter and how high the photon flux is in the sample region after the 3" distance is taken up by the magnet.

### Custom

The vendor below has stated that they have the ability to design a permanent magnet to our specification.

The above vendor needs a CAD drawing showing the dimensions of a magnet that would work for isotope production on Jack in order to provide a quote.

need large quantity orders, not interested now in one custom magnet. Didn't think 1" face was possible.

jima@duramag.com

# References

Nitrogen tracers: N-15 is rare. If you dope nitrogen sources with it you can see where the leak into environment. This is a stable tracer so it would be able to monitor long time plume expansions.

Catchment hydrology

Review of Diamond detectors

Simulations

High Flux MeV photon profiler

CVD Diamond film

Film Vendor only

Alemeda Applied Sciences Corporation

Diamond x-ray view screen http://www.diamond-materials.com/EN/products/cvd_for_xray/fluorescence_beam_monitors.htm

NIM paper from 2002

Diamond Detectors LtD (Vendor for single crystal Chip on Board Package)

### Medical isotopes

Market report forcasting -> 2015

2013 DOE Medical Isotope program budget and info

2010 Talk on Future Isotope needs in medicine and industry

Need Mo-99, Tc-99m, I-131, I-125, Cu-67, At-211, Ac-225, Bi-213, Am-241, Gd-148, Sr-90, Pm-147

A big isotope supplier is Eckert & Ziegler

2009 Medical Isotope industry & trade study

### Fracking

Earth Justice

Injection of a wide range of radioactive tracers in solid, liquid or gaseous forms,<ref name="NRC"/> is often used to determine the injection profile and location of fractures created by hydraulic fracturing.<ref name="Reis iodine" /> The radiotracer is chosen to have readily detectable radiation, appropriate chemical properties, and a half life and toxicity level that will minimize initial and residual contamination.<ref name="IAEA 2003" />

The isotopes, Manganese-56, Sodium-24, Technetium-99m, Silver-110m, Argon-41, and Xenon-133 are used extensively in the oil industry because they are easily identified and measured.<ref name="IAEA 2003" /> Also Antimony-124, Bromine-82, Iodine-125, Iodine-131, Iridium-192, and Scandium-46 are used.<ref name="NRC"/>

In the United States radionuclides maximum amounts per injection are controlled by the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC).<ref name="NRC"/> For example, Iodine-131, gas form, 100 millicuries total, not to exceed 20 millicuries per injection; Iodine-131, liquid form, 50 millicuries total, not to exceed 10 millicuries per injection; Iridium-192, "Labeled" frac sand, 200 millicuries total, not to exceed 15 millicuries per injection; Silver-110m, liquid form, 200 millicuries total, not to exceed 20 millicuries per injection.<ref name="NRC"/>

Na-24 is used for fracking as well... They are making it on site by (n,gamma) on Na-23, using neutron generators. Initial concentration of Na-24 is 0,24 mCi, volume of the solution is 2-3 m3; activity per volume is 0.08-0.12 mCi/m3.

### Geology

2011 paper on PAA for environmental analysis

A 1988 paper measuring Flourine using PAA

2007 paper studies PAA,NAA,PGA techniques for measuring Halogen in Geological samples

2007 comparison of PAA and NAA in geology

1994 segebade article on optimizing PAA for environmental analysis

2009 measuring Sr/Ca in teeth can be useful for biology and archaeology

#### Potential collaborators

Alberto E. Patiño Douce

Sune Nielsen

## Artificially-produced Isotope List

Jeff H. Shelton Isotope Business Office (IBO) National Isotope Development Center (NIDC) Telephone: (865) 576-6401 E-mail: EF6 or sheltonjh@ornl.gov

Cobalt-60, Lanthanum-140, Scandium-46, Silver-110m, Gold-198: Used together in blast furnaces to determine resident times and to quantify yields to measure the furnace performance.

cross section data base

### Industrial

Using targets with natural isotope abundance larger than 20 %
 Isotope Production Reaction Target nat. Abund X sect Use Cesium-137 72% Used for radiotracer technique for identification of sources of soil erosion and deposition, in density and fill height level switches. Cobalt-60 1 % Used for gamma sterilisation, industrial radiography, density and fill height switches. Gold-198 16.9% Used to study sewage and liquid waste movements, as well as tracing factory waste causing ocean pollution, and to trace sand movement in river beds and ocean floors. Iodine-131 27% adioactive tracer isotopes are injected with hydraulic fracturing fluid to determine the injection profile and location of fractures created by hydraulic fracturing Iridium-192 63% Fracking ,Used in gamma radiography to locate flaws in metal components. Zinc-65 28% pg 56 Used to predict the behaviour of heavy metal components in effluents from mining waste water. Scandium-47 74% pg 133

|- | Tl-201 || || Medical Thalilum is most common substitute for Tc |- | Cu-67 || || 19% || |-

Rh-99

Ti-44

Pd-100

Ag-111

Hf-181

Bi-204

Cs-131, Silver-110, Indium-111, Ga-67, Bromine-77, Fl-18, O-15, Al-26, N-13, Scandium-47, Ba-133

Tt-195 -> Ir-194

 Isotope Production Reaction Use Am-241 Used in backscatter gauges, smoke detectors, fill height detectors and in measuring ash content of coal. Cesium-137 (72%) Used for radiotracer technique for identification of sources of soil erosion and deposition, in density and fill height level switches. Chromium 57 Used to label sand to study coastal erosion. Cobalt-60 Used for gamma sterilisation, industrial radiography, density and fill height switches. Gadolinium-148 Gold-198 (16.9%) Used to study sewage and liquid waste movements, as well as tracing factory waste causing ocean pollution, and to trace sand movement in river beds and ocean floors. Iodine-131 (27%) adioactive tracer isotopes are injected with hydraulic fracturing fluid to determine the injection profile and location of fractures created by hydraulic fracturing Iridium-192 (63%) Fracking ,Used in gamma radiography to locate flaws in metal components. Krypton-85 Used for industrial gauging. Manganese-54 Used to predict the behaviour of heavy metal components in effluents from mining waste water. Nickel-63 Used in light sensors in cameras and plasma display, also electronic discharge prevention and in electron capture detectors for thickness gauges. Pm-147 Selenium-75 Used in gamma radiography and non-destructive testing. Strontium-90 Used for industrial gauging Technetium-99m Used to study sewage and liquid waste movements, as well as tracing factory waste causing ocean pollution, and to trace sand movement in river beds and ocean floors. Thallium-204 Used for industrial gauging. Ytterbium-169 Used in gamma radiography and non-destructive testing. Zinc-65 (28%) Used to predict the behaviour of heavy metal components in effluents from mining waste water.

### Medical

Cesium-137 || || Used for radiotracer technique for identification of sources of soil erosion and deposition, in density and fill height level switches.
 Isotope Production Reaction Use Mo-99 Medical Tc-99m Medical Tl-201 Medical Thalilum is most common substitute for Tc I-131 I-125 Cu-67 19% Ac-225 Bi-213 Am-241 Used in backscatter gauges, smoke detectors, fill height detectors and in measuring ash content of coal. Gd-148 Sr-90 Pm-147 F-18 Medical, aka FDG flourodeoxyglucose used in 90% of PET imaging, proton accelerator does Ga-67 Medical Re -186 Medical I-123 Medical Sm -153 Medical Y-90 Medical Er-169 Medical Y-88 Sc-44 Ir-192 implanted to irradiate tumors

Perkinelmer

Isoflex

ZeroWash Tracers