Limit of Scattering Angle Theta in Lab Frame

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The quantity is known as the

[math]u \equiv \left({\mathbf P_1^*}- {\mathbf P_2^{'*}}\right)^2=\left({\mathbf P_2^{*}}- {\mathbf P_1^{'*}}\right)^2[/math]

In the CM Frame

In the Lab Frame

[math]u={\mathbf P_1^{2}}+ {\mathbf P_2^{'2}}-2 {\mathbf P_1} {\mathbf P_2^{'}}={\mathbf P_2^{2}}+ {\mathbf P_1^{'2}}-2 {\mathbf P_2} {\mathbf P_1^{'}}[/math]

[math]u=2m^2-2E_1E_2^{'}+2 \vec p_1 \vec p_2^{'}=2m^2-2E_2E_1^{'}+2 p_2 p_1^{'}[/math]

with [math]p_2=0[/math]

and [math]E_2=m[/math]

[math]u=2m^2-2E_1E_2^{'}+2 \vec p_1 \vec p_2^{'}=2m^2-2mE_1^{'}[/math]

[math]u=2m^2-2E_1E_2^{'}+2 \left | p_1 \right | left | p_2^{'} \right | \cos \theta_{1\ 2^{'}}=2m^2-2mE_1^{'}[/math]